Senin, 18 Maret 2013

Answer for Chapter Two Review Question and Problem Set


1. Plankalkul was designed by Konrad Zuse between 1942 & 1945. He first published a paper on it in 1948. More information on the language was published in 1972.

4. Speedcoding include the operations of floating-point operators and include the novel facility of automatically incrementing address register

7. IBM 704 has indexing and floating-point instructions in hardware, heralded the end of the interperative era

8. Short Code was proposed by John Mauchly in 1949 and originally known as Brief Code. William Schmitt implemented a version of Brief Code in 1949 for the BINAC computer, though it was never debugged and tested.

14. Linguists were concerned with natural language processing, such as psychology and mathematics. Psychologists were interested in modeling human information storage and retrieval, Mathematicians were interested in mechanizing certain intelligent processes, such as theorem proving.

15. Common LISP has a large number of data types and structures, including records, arrays, complex number, and character strings. It also has a form of packages for modularizing collection of function and data providing access control.

16. Scheme is a small language with simple semantics and syntax, because of this, Scheme is well suited for education purpose, while common LISP is a large and complex language with a primitive functions

21.Language that was design for syntax ALGO 60 is BNF-based compiler design.

22. COBOL was based on FLOW-MATIC language, that was implemented in 1957

23. COBOL design project begin on May 28,29, 1959 at the Pentagon

27. Because BASIC is the one which was the first widely used language that was used through terminals connected to a remote computer.

28. PL/I was designed to replace Fortran and COBOL.

33. ALGOL-W.

41. C++: good of availability and inexpensive compiler
Ada: The design was competitive and it’s language embodies most of the concept of software engineering and language design of the late 1970’s

42. Basic concept of OOP:
a.Remarkable foresight to predict the future availability of powerful desktop computer.
b.Powerful human interfacing capability
c.Have a determine

57. Datatypes in java most is same in C like Boolean, float, int, char, etc.

66. The XSLT document specifies transformations by the defining templates.


1. The logical loop control statements, and an “if” with an optional “else” caluse.

2. Short Code clearly simplified the programming process, but at the expense of execution time. Short Code interpretation was approximately 50 times slower than machine code (hand calculator).

4.  C: User can create operators for existing operators on user-defined types.
BASIC: Only had 14 different statement types and single data types-floating point.

8. Because Speedcoding major ability is a virtual three-address floating-point calculator and its more compare for mathematic.

13. Because, C is flexible and well suited for various applications and also a compiler for C was part of the widely used UNIX operating system in 1980s.


25. Java servlet is a Java programming language class used to extend the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they are commonly used to extend the applications hosted by web servers, so they can be thought of as Java Apllets that run on servers instead of in web browsers

Selasa, 05 Maret 2013

Answer for Chapter One Review Question and Problem Set

Review Question :

1. It is useful to have some language design background because it can increase the capability to express ideas, it will increase ability to learn new languages and help the person to choose the appropriate language

3. Programming language that has dominated scientific computing over the past 50 years is FORTRAN

4. Programming language has dominated business applications over the past 50 years is COBOL

6. The language is most used of UNIX written in C language

9. In case structured data type (record and array), record can be returned from function but arrays can’t. Parameters are passed by value, unless they are arrays, in case they are, in effect, passed by reference

15. Aliasing is having two or more distinct names that can be used to access the same memory cell

16. Exception handling is the ability to intercept run-time errors(as well as other unusual conditional detect by the program), take corrective measures, and then continue is an obvious aid to reliability

26. A compiler produces faster program execution than a pure interpreter

Problem Set :

1. Do you believe that solving problem in a particular algorithmic step requires programming language skill? Support your opinion.

In my opinion, i don't believe that solving a problem in a particular algorithmic step requires programming language skill because in solving a problem usually people use the step by step methods not programming language

2. Who said to be the first programmer in human history ?
Ada Lovelace or Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognized as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine. Because of this, she is often considered the world’s first computer programmer

3. What are the disadvantages of multiple programming languages?
The disadvantages of multiple programming languages are sometime we could forget or confused when we using a function type of languages, and we need many time for study all languages

6. Which characteristics of programming languages do you think are the most important and why?
The most important thing for a programming language is easy to understand and can be read. because if it's hard to understand and can't be read we will have many trouble to make a program based on the programming language 

8. Most languages use functions and subroutines. What are the pros and cons of this design decision?
Pros : Functions and subroutines are use to make the program easier to maintain and understand. And make it more simply
Cons : It requires more skills on the programmer to use functions and subroutines

12. Can we call any programming language complete, in your opinion? why or why not?
In my opinion, we can't call any programming language complete because each of programming language is made for some reason and do not connect or same with other. So each of it have it's own advantage and disadvantage

13. Was the first high-level programming language you learned implemented with a pure interpreter, a hybrid implementation system, or a compiler?
The first high-level programming language i learned is C. and its a compiler

17. Some programming language–for example, SQL–use “=” to check the equality of two expressions, while C uses it to assign values to variable. which of these, in your opinion, is most natural and least likely to result in syntax error? support your answer. 
My opinion C is most natural and least likely to result in syntax error. 

02 PBT


Hello my name is Elmar Rusli, right now I'm studying Computer Science at Bina Nusantara University, I'm from 02 PBT Class, my NIM is 1601217171. In my second semester, and my instructor for Concepts of Programing Language  is Mr. Tri Djoko Wahjono, Ir., M.Sc.